Diabetes

Diabetes

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What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that happens when your blood glucose, similarly termed blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your highest cause of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone finished by the pancreas, supports glucose since nutrition become into your cells to be used for energy. Rarely your body doesn’t make sufficient — or any — insulin or doesn’t use insulin fine. Glucose as well stops in your blood and doesn’t influence your cells.

Over time, taking too essential glucose in your blood be able to create health difficulties. While diabetes has no medicine, you can take steps to achieve your diabetes and stay fit.

Occasionally people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious.

What health problems can people with diabetes develop?

Over time, high blood glucose information to difficulties like as

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Dental disease
  • Nerve damage
  • Foot problems

You can take steps to lower your chances of increasing these diabetes- connected fitness difficulties.

Symptoms of diabetes

Diabetes symptoms are make happen through increasing blood sugar.

General symptoms

The general symptoms of diabetes include

  • Increased hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Vague vision
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Sores that don’t heal

Symptoms in men

In addition to the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may have a dropped sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength.

Symptoms in women

Women with diabetes can also have symptoms similar as urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin.

Diabetes complications

High blood sugar injuries body part and skins all over your body. The advanced your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the lesser your risk for complications.

Complications associated with diabetes include

  • Heart disease, heart attack, and stroke
  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Retinopathy and vision loss
  • Hearing loss
  • Foot damage similar as infections and sores that don’t heal
  • Skin conditions similar as bacterial and fungal infections
  • Depression
  • Dementia

What's the best medicine for diabetes?

Metformin is a tried and tested medicine that has been used for numerous decades to treat type 2 diabetes, and is recommended by utmost experts as first- line therapy. It's affordable, safe, effective, and well permitted by utmost people. When metformin doesn't adequately control blood sugar, another medication must be added.

What oral medications are approved to treat diabetes?

Over 40 medicines have been permitted through the Food and Drug Administration for the management of diabetes. It’s beyond the scope of this article to review all of these medicines. Rather, we’ll compactly review the main medicine classes available, how they work and present the names of a many medicines in each class. Your healthcare team will decide if medication is right for you. However, they’ll decide which specific medicine (s) are best to treat your diabetes, If so.

Diabetes medicine classes include

  • Sulfonylureas these medicines lower blood glucose by causing the pancreas to release further insulin. Examples exclude glimepiride (Amaryl), glipizide (Glucotrol) and glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta).
  • Glinides (also called meglitinides) these medicines lower blood glucose by getting the pancreas to release further insulin. Exemplifications include repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix).
  • Biguanides These medicines reduce how important glucose the liver produces. It similarly advances how insulin everything in the body, and reduces down the conversion of carbohydrates into sugar. Metformin (Glucophage) is the illustration.
  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors these medicines lower blood glucose by delaying the breakdown of carbohydrates and reducing glucose absorption in the small intestine. An example is acarbose (Precose).
  • Thiazolidinediones These medicines ameliorate the way insulin works in the body by allowing more glucose to enter into muscles, fat and the liver. Examples take in pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia).
  • GLP-1 analogs (also called incretin mimetics or glucagon-suchlike peptide-1 receptor agonists) these medicines increase the release of insulin, reduce glucose release from the liver after meals and delay food evacuating from the stomach. Examples include exenatide (Byetta), liraglutide (Victoza), albiglutide (Tanzeum), semaglutide (Rybelsus) and dulaglutide (Trulicity).
  • DPP-4 inhibitors (also called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) these medicines help your pancreas release more insulin after meals. They similarly inferior the amount of glucose released by the liver. Examples include alogliptin (Nesina), sitagliptin (Januvia), saxagliptin (Onglyza) and linagliptin (Tradjenta).
  • SGLT2 inhibitors (also called sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors) these medicines work on your kidneys to remove glucose in your body through your urine. Examples include canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga) and empagliflozin (Jardiance).

  • Bile acid sequestrants these medicines lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Examples include colestipol (Colestid), cholestyramine (Questran) and colesevelam (Welchol).

Dopamine agonist this medicine depresses the amount of glucose released through the liver. An example is bromocriptine (Cyclocet).

Numerous oral diabetes medications may be used in combination or with insulin to achieve the stylish blood glucose control. Some of the below medications are available as a combination of two medicines in a single pill. Others are existing as injectable medicines, for example, the GLP-1 agonist semaglutide (Ozempic) and lixisenatide (Adlyxin).

Every time take your medicine accurately as your healthcare suggests it. Bandy your specific questions and concerns with them.

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (sugar) due to the body's inability to produce or effectively use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. There are different types of diabetes, with Type 1 and Type 2 being the most common. Here's an overview:

1. Type 1 Diabetes:

  • Cause: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
  • Onset: Often diagnosed in children or young adults, but it can occur at any age.
  • Treatment: Requires daily insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump to replace the insulin the body can no longer produce.

2. Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Cause: Typically develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
  • Onset: More common in adults, but can also occur in children and adolescents, especially with rising obesity rates.
  • Treatment: Managed through lifestyle changes, oral medications, injectable medications, and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

Common Symptoms of Diabetes:

  • Frequent Urination: Increased need to urinate, especially at night.
  • Excessive Thirst: Persistent feeling of thirst.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Despite normal or increased appetite.
  • Fatigue: Feeling tired and lethargic.
  • Blurred Vision: Changes in vision may occur.
  • Slow Wound Healing: Cuts and bruises may take longer to heal.

Risk Factors:

  • Genetics: Family history of diabetes increases the risk.
  • Obesity: Being overweight or obese is a significant risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.
  • Age: The risk increases with age, especially after 45.
  • Physical Inactivity: Lack of regular physical activity is a risk factor.
  • Gestational Diabetes: Having gestational diabetes during pregnancy increases the risk.

Complications of Diabetes:

  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Kidney Damage (Nephropathy): Diabetes can lead to kidney damage over time.
  • Eye Problems (Retinopathy): Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the eyes, leading to vision problems.
  • Nerve Damage (Neuropathy): Numbness, tingling, and pain in the extremities can result from nerve damage.
  • Foot Problems: Diabetes can lead to foot ulcers and infections.

Management and Prevention:

  • Blood Sugar Monitoring: Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels.
  • Healthy Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Regular Exercise: Physical activity helps manage blood sugar levels and promotes overall health.
  • Medication: Medications may be prescribed to control blood sugar levels.
  • Insulin Therapy: For individuals with Type 1 diabetes or advanced Type 2 diabetes.
  • Regular Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups to monitor and manage diabetes-related complications.

Diabetes is a manageable condition, and with proper care, individuals with diabetes can lead healthy and fulfilling lives. Lifestyle modifications, medication adherence, and regular medical follow-ups are crucial aspects of diabetes management. Early diagnosis and intervention play a key role in preventing complications associated with diabetes.

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